Hi, everyone. It’s Vivian here, and Melissa!!! I’m just super excited to be your host again this fall. I really enjoyed sharing songs, useful expressions and cultural differences with you guys. It makes me feel fulfilled! So… happy to be back! ____________ (Your feelings about being back on the podcast…)
真的非常开心，新学期又可以跟大家分享实用有趣的英文知识，陪伴大家成长。如果你们觉得EIU Online的存在有陪伴到你的话，那我想说，这种感觉是相互的。从大家的关注、留言、点赞和转发当中，我们感受到了自己的价值感和幸福感。这也是为什么，虽然这个学期Melissa回美国陪伴家人，隔着太平洋还愿意每周跟大家在EIU Online上相聚！
(Your feelings about the podcast project and IVE, how you feel in America right now… )
(Ending: personal goals for this fall- maybe how you want your Chinese to be at the end of this school year… motivate everyone a bit… )
所以……我决定请出我多年前提升语音的一本书籍，亚马逊No.1语音书- American Accent Traning……超级专业、受认可的书……
Alright. Let’s begin the first lesson.
首先要给大家引入一个新的概念，accent，口音。狭义上的口音，大家都知道，比如fu南的塑普，si川的川普……大家懂的。而今天我要告诉，广义上的口音，其实包含了三个部分：发音（元音、辅音等）、连音（词的连读），还有语调（你说话时的音调、起伏）。Pronunciation, liaisons, and intonation. Wow,… 惊不惊喜，意不意外？
First, let’s talk about Do’s and Dont’s.
1. Don’t speak word by word. 不要逐字发音
我们都知道中文讲究的是字正腔圆，是Da Da Da Da 这样点式韵律，而美式英语，更像是一条灵动的河流，I’m on the phone right now… 是流线式的韵律。是截然不同的。
所以，如果你还在逐字的念英文，stop it now.
2. Connect words to form sound groups. 连接单词，形成音群。
This is where you’re going to start doing something completely different than what you have done in your previous English studies. And it is not easy. But be patient, you can do it.
音群会使句子变得流畅，比如 Up until now, get up early,
3. Use staircase intonation. 使用阶梯状语调。
What Exactly Is Staircase Intonation?
In saying your words, imagine that they came out as if they were bounding lightly down a flight of stairs. Every so often, one jumps up to another level, and then starts down again.
We go up and down staircases. 在阶梯上上下下。
We start high and end low. 以高音开始、以低音结束。
Every time we want to stress a word or an idea, we just start a new staircase.
Statement Intonation with Nouns 带名词的陈述句语调
Intonation or pitch change is primarily used to introduce new information. This means that when you are making a statement for the first time, you will stress the nouns.
Dogs eat bones.
Jerry likes music.
Elsa wants a book.
Statement Intonation with Pronouns 带代词的陈述句语调
When you replace the nouns with pronouns (i.e., old information), stress the verb.
Dogs eat bones. They eat them.
Jane sells cars. She sells them.
Kids like toys. They like them.
As we have seen, nouns are new information; pronouns are old information. In a nutshell, these are the two basic intonation patterns.
Statement Versus Question intonation 陈述句语调与疑问句语调对比
You may have learned at some point that questions have a rising intonation. They do, but usually a question will step upward until the very end, where it takes one quick little downward step. A question rises a little higher than a statement with the same intonation pattern.
Here is my car. Where is my car?
Emotional or Rhetorical Question Intonation 表达情绪的问句或反问句语调
If you know that your car is parked outside, however, and someone doesn't see it and asks you where it is, you might think that it has been stolen and your emotion will show in your intonation as you repeat the question. As your feelings rise in an emotional situation, your intonation rises up along with them.
Where is my car? Why? Is it gone?
你是否有听过到这样的英语：…. Da Da Da Da… 有什么特点？每个单词一样重，调也是平的～
而其实英文应该是有起有伏，有ups and downs…
Reasons for & Effects of Using Staircase Intonation
1. Four Main Reasons for Intonation
Depending on the situation, a word nay be stressed for any of the following reasons:
New Information Opinion Contrast "Can't"
1. New information
It sounds like rain.
Rain is the new information. It's the mast important word in that sentence and you could replace everything else with duh-duh-duh. Duh-duh-duh rain will still let you get your point across.
Repeat: Duh-duh-duh rain / It sounds like rain.
Make rain very musical and put it on two notes: ray-ayn.
Duh-duh-duh ray-ayn / It sounds like ray-ayn.
It sounds like rain. but I don't think it is.
In this case, intonation makes the meaning the opposite of what the words say: It looks like a diamond, but I think it's a zircon. It smells like Chanel, but at that price, it's a knack-off. It feels like... It tastes like... These examples all give the impression that you mean the opposite of what your senses tell you.
He likes rain, but he hates snow.
Like and hate are contrasted and are the stronger words in the sentence.
It can't rain when there're no clouds.
Contractions (shouldn't, wouldn't) and negatives (no, not, never) are important words since they totally negate the meaning of a sentence, but they are not usually stressed.
Can't is the exception.
5. Pitch and Meaning Change
Practice saying the four sentences after me. Pay close attention to the changes in pitch that you must make to convey the different meanings intended. The words to be stressed are indicated in bold face.